The field is often considered to have begun in 1896 with the opening of the first psychological clinic at the University of Pennsylvania by LightnerWitmer. In the first half of the 20th century, clinical psychology was focused on psychological assessment, with little attention given to treatment. This changed after the 1940s when World War II resulted in the need for a large increase in the number of trained clinicians. Since that time, two main educational models have developedthe Ph.D. scientistpractitioner model (requiring a doctoral dissertation and extensive research experience in addition to clinical expertise) and, in the U.S. the Psy.D. Practitionerscholar model (requiring completion of either a dissertation or other doctoral project, with extensive focus on clinical expertise in addition to research). While training programs using either model, if accredited by the American Psychological Association, are required to teach the full spectrum of psychological science, including both research and clinical practice, the primary objective of Ph.D. programs has historically been training students in conducting research as well as clinical practice; while the primary objective of Psy.D. Programs has been preparing students to apply their knowledge in clinical practice.
Clinical psychologists provide psychotherapy, psychological testing, and diagnosis of mental illness. They generally train within four primary theoretical orientationspsychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive-behavioral (CBT), and systems or family therapy. Many continue clinical training in post-doctoral programs in which they might specialize in disciplines such as psychoanalytic approaches or child and adolescent treatment modalities
What is Business Psychology?
Business Psychology is the study and practice of improving working life. It combines an understanding of the science of human behaviour with experience of the world of work to attain effective and sustainable performance for both individuals and organisations
Business Psychology is an applied science that investigates how to make people and organizations more effective. It uses social scientific research methods to study people, workplaces and organizations in order to better align their multiple and sometimes competing needs. Its goal is to create healthy and productive relationships between people and organizations for mutual benefit.